By: Youssef Majidzadeh
The altitude of the
Ozbaki village from the sea level is 1118 meters.
It is a vast ancient
site, comprised of a number of short mounds and a high mound standing 26
meters above the surrounding lands.
Some of the mounds,
according to residents are : Kumush Tappeh, located 400 meters to the west
of the tall mound known as Ozbaki Tappeh, Jairan Tappeh located 250 meters
to the south of Ozbaki Tappeh, and Yan Tappeh, located at some 700 meters
to the southwest of Ozbaki Tappeh. The archeology team named three other
mounds as Doshan Tappeh, Maral Tappeh and Takhtgah Tappeh. Considering the
depth of ancient layers of soil down to unscathed soil proven in the
northern side of Ozbaki Tappeh, its altitude from intact earth is more
than 30 meters.
In all of the five periods, the bricks are handmade, the oldest of them being the most ancient type of bricks found in archeological excavations in the whole Middle East. Iranian President Mohammed Khatami recently presented one of these bricks to UN secretary general as a mark of opening a dialogue among civilizations.
The average area of buildings in this site is 2.5 to 3.5 square meters, and in some cases larger. Although no trace of roofs have so far been found from these architectural remains, their excessive smallness indicates that they were covered with primitive material such as tree branches and leafs and possibly a layer of cob. Inhabitants of this settlement buried their dead in the floor of their dwellings and covered the floor with bricks.
Simultaneous with the
second period in Silk, the inhabitants of Yan Tappeh abandoned their
settlements for unknown reasons, moving to site some 100 meters to the
west of high mound of Ozbaki Tappeh.
Until the 1970s, our
knowledge of the chronicle of prehistoric cultures in the Central Plateau
was based on the results of French excavations in Kashan's Silk mound.
According to this chronology, since the most ancient times up to the mid
4th millennium, BC the societies of these regions belonged to the same
culture, one which continued during the above millennia continuously.
However, in early 1970s, excavations led by this author in the Qabrestan
Tappeh in the Qazvin plain revealed new findings in the form of different
earthenware. In excavations in Ozbaki Tappeh we found similar remains of
earthenware called Plum Ceramics because of their color. Coherent
architectural remains belonging to this culture were also found, leaving
no doubt about the invasion of migrating intruders, confirming social and
political changes in this part of land of Iran. Although there is still no
concrete evidence of the origin of the invaders, it sees that their
original homeland was a region beyond the Caucus Mountains.
The Plum Ceramic culture
disappeared after a few centuries, replaced by another earthenware culture
known in Silk Mound as the Third Period, ending with the start of script
era in Mesopotamia mid 4th millennium BC.
The discovery of objects
such as tablets, statuettes, and "jagged" earthenware in Ozbaki Tappeh
indicate some kind of commercial link between Susa in Khuzestan and this
are in Tehran province.
Evidence found about the
migration and presence of "Grey earthenware' Aryans particularly in the
east and center of the Iranian Plateau up to the Medes kingdom is chiefly
comprised of graves and cemeteries, therefore the general assumption is
that the early Aryans were camp dwellers.
Such a deployment of
migrating Aryans in the Ozbaki site undoubtedly indicates its significance
in the prehistoric times, and shows that this site was possibly the
largest and most important political and economic center, and in other
words the heart of the cultures of the Central Plateau.
The significance of the site was such that the invaders, after occupying it, chose it as their settlement and their rulers built a castle to control a major part of their territories in the central plateau. The graveyard belonging to those people has been identified some 250 meters from the Doshan Tappeh buildings.