IRANIAN HISTORY: PARTHIAN DYNASTY
The Origin of Arsacid Dynasty
By: Prof. A. Shapur Shahbazi
The (Persian Ashkanian), Parthian dynasty which was the third Iranian dynasty, after Medes and Achaemenids ruled Iran from about 250 B.C. to about 226 A. D.
Our sources on the
ancestry of the eponymous founder of the dynasty, Arsaces, vary
irreconcilably. He is introduced as a outlaw who seized Parthia by
attacking and killing its satrap, Andragoras (Justin 41.4; Ammianus
Marcellinus 23.6.2); as a Bactrian who found the rise of Diodotus
unbearable, moved to Parthia, and securing the leadership of the province,
rose against the Seleucids (Strabo I 1.9.3) invasion of Iran; or as a
Parni chief of the Dahae oacians, who conquered Parthia shortly before
Diodotus' revolt (ibid., 1 1.9.2). A fourth account alleges that "the
Persian" Andragoras whom Alexander left as satrap of Parthia was the
ancestor of the subsequent kings of Parthia (Justin 12.4.12). A fifth
version had been provided by Arrian in his Parthica, now lost, which was
epitomized on this point by Photius (Bibliotlteca 58) and the
twelfth-century Syncellus (Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae XIII,
ed. W. Dindorf, Bonn, 1829, p.539). Photius' epitome runs as follows: "Arsaces
and Tiridates were brothers, descendants of Phriapites, the son of Arsaces
[Syncellus: the brothers "were allegedly descendants of the Persian
Artaxerxes"]. Pherecles [Syncellus: Agathocles], who had been made satrap
of their country by Antiochus Theus, offered a gross insult to one of
them, whereupon... they took five men into counsel, and with their aid
slew the insolent one. They then induced their nation to revolt from the
Macedonians and set up a government of their own." Finally, the Iranian
national history traced Arsaces' lineage to Kay Qobad (Ferdowsi, Sah-nama
VII, p. 1 16. Tabari, 1, p. 710), or to his son Kay Ara; (Ta'alebi,
p.457), or to Dara the son of Homay (Tabari, 1, p.704; Biruni, The
Chronology, p. 118), or even to the famous archer,
Ârash (Sâh-nâma VII, p.115; anonymous "authorities" apud Biruni, op.
cit., p. I 19).
These reports reflect
developments in political ideologies. Humble origin and robbery are
folk-stories told also of Cyrus, Sasan, and other dynastic heroes. The
association with Ârash the archer was occasioned by similarity in names
and the fact that Arsaces is figured on Parthian coins as a bowman (cf. A.
v. Gutschmidt in ZDMG 34, 1880, p. 743), although the bow was always
regarded as a royal symbol. "The Persian Artaxerxes" in Syncellus has
generally been taken to mean Artaxerxes II because Ctesias said (apud
Plutarch, Arto.xares 2) that he was called Arsaces prior to his coronation
(A. v. Gutschmid, Geschichte Irans and seiner Nachbarldnder, Tubingen,
1888, p. 30, and others). But this ignores the fact that Artaxerxes I also
was called Arshak/Arsaces, Babylonian Arshu (A. Sachs, "Achaemenid Royal
Names in Babylonian Astronomical Texts," American Journal of Ancient
History 4, 1979, pp. 131ff.).
The tradition that Arsaces was a Parni chief is supported, as R. N. Frye has noticed (The History, of Ancient Iran, Munich, 1983, p.206), by a statement in Bundahishn (35.43f.) according to which Dastân (= Zal), "Prince of the Sacas" and Aparnak, Lord of Aparsgahr (later Nishapur) were descendants of Sam: "Aparsahr is thus named because it is the land of the Aparnak" (corrected translation in Frye, loc. cit., with n. 3). By the middle of the third century B.C., the Parni appear to have been assimilated to the Iranian Parthians: They adopted the latter sh name, bore purely Iranian-even Zoroastrian-names (Lassen, Indische Altertutnskundc II, Bonn, 1847, p.285 n. 3, could connect the name of Arsaces' father, Phriapites, with an Avestan *Friya. pity "father-lover" = Greek Philopalros). On his coins, Arsaces wears Sacian dress but sits on a stool (later ampholas) with a bow in hand, as Achaemenid satraps, such as Datames, had done before. He deliberately diverges from Seleucid coins to emphasize his nationalistic and royal aspirations, and he calls himself Karny/Karny (Greek Autocratos), a title already borne by Achaemenid supreme generals, such as Cyrus the Younger (see for details M. T. Abgarians and D. G. Sellwood, "A Hoard of Early Parthian Drachms," NC, 1971, pp. 103ff.). Later Parthian kings assumed Achaemenid descent, revived Achaemenid protocols (J. Ncusner, "Perthian Political Ideology," Iranica Antigua 3, 1963, pp.45ff.), and Artabanus III, who named one of his sons Darius (Dio Cassius 59.27), laid claim to Cyrus' heritage (Tacitus, Annals 4.31). On the whole, then, onomastic, numismatic, and epigraphic considerations point to the conclusion that the Parthian dynasty was "local. Iranian by origin;" on this ground "the Zoroastrian character of all the names of the Parthian kings, and the fact that some of these names . . . belong to the heroic background' of the Avesta," afford logical explanation (G. V. Lukonin in Camb. Hist. Iran 111/2, 1983, p.-687).
Bibliography given in the text
Source/Extracted From: Encyclopaedia Iranica
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